• Usually, begins with a disorder in memory: the patient loses the ability to learn new things.
  • The clinical diagnosis is accurate in 90% of cases.
  • No specific diagnostic marker for the disease has yet been found.
  • The progression of the disease is slow, although periods of slower or more rapid deterioration may occur. The duration of the disease from the first symptom to the death of the patient is approximate 12 years (2-20 years).
  • The most common cause of death is aspiration pneumonia.
  • Drugs may contribute to the improvement of functional capacity, cognitive and behavioral symptoms. However not all patients have improvement from medications, or the effect may be reduced over time. For now, no drug is known to act causally or stop the progression of the disease.

Signs and symptoms not attached to Alzheimer’s disease:

  • Early onset, an early outbreak, epileptic seizures, or behavioral changes;
  • Focal neurological signs, ramidal signs;
  • Other diseases that may occur with cognitive symptoms, such as cerebrovascular disease, severe depression, or other illnesses that may lead to dementia.


Alzheimer’s disease can be reliably diagnosed when:

  • Clinical and neuropathological NIA-Reagan criteria are fully met.
  • Clinical criteria are met and the patient has Alzheimer’s disease due to a gene mutation on chromosomes 1, 14 or 21.
  • MR is more valuable for diagnosis than CTM because brain changes caused by Alzheimer’s disease can be visualized on MR. If symptoms are typical, CTM can be used to exclude other conditions.




  • The patient usually tries to hide or deny his symptoms.
  • Distorted memory (impaired ability to learn new information or repeat previously learned information).
  • The patient is easily lost, especially in an unknown environment.
  • The feeling of time is disturbed.
  • Finding appropriate words is difficult.
  • Understanding complex and abstract ideas are difficult.
  • Execute functions are disturbed, and complicated skills from everyday life are a problem for them.
    • The patient may be inactive and withdrawn.
  • Sometimes, the patient is depressed, paranoid or aggressive.
  • Physical examination is normal.
  • The patient is easily lost, even in the home environment.
  • The patient may experience various hallucinations, which are much more common in Lewy bodies-dementia.
  • Weight loss is inevitable, therefore, attention to nutritional needs is necessary.


  • Difficulties in everyday activities/skills (dressing, washing).
  • The ability to understand someone else’s speech or to speak is disturbed or completely lost.
  • Lower limbs become stiff due to increased muscle tone and the patient takes a stiff position, walking ability replaces with dragging. The ability to move will be reduced or completely lost therefore they need physiotherapy.
  • Urinary and fecal incontinence develops.
  • Epileptic seizures may sometimes occur.
  • The patient is no longer able to cope with everyday activities/skills (dressing, bathing, maintaining hygiene and eventually eating) and eventually are completely lost.




  • Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine have some efficacy in Alzheimer’s disease, improving functional capacity, and reducing symptoms of impaired behavior.
  • Memantine is beneficial in the moderate to severe stage of the disease.
  • The combination of memantine and acetylcholinesterase medicament (donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine) appears to be effective and safe.
  • Elderly patients may develop nausea, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, especially when high doses of donepezil, galantamine, and rivastigmine are used.
  • Transdermal administration of rivastigmine-patch gives a significant reduction in the incidence of side effects.
  • Note: The goal of the therapy is to improve functional capacity and delay the need for institutional care.
  • Treatment should be discontinued when it is no longer effective. Once admitted to the appropriate institutional care, if the patient no longer responds to the medicine, the drugs should be withdrawn for 1-2 weeks. If a further cognitive deviation is registered, the drugs are continued.
  • Appropriate psychiatric drugs may improve the patient’s condition in some cases, but the occurrence of adverse effects must be avoided.
  • Risperidone at a dose of 0.25-0.5mg 2×1 per day shows a moderate effect in the treatment of behavioral symptoms. Continuous treatment is recommended for a period longer than 6 months.
  • The functional capacity of the Alzheimer’s illness can improve by the influence of the environment, which should be appropriately stimulated.


Nutrition in Alzheimer’s disease is crucial


Healthy and versatile foods for the brain and memory such as regular balanced meals reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease. Positive influences of this disease have various mixtures, dietary supplements containing important minerals (iodine and zinc). Natural zinc sources include eggs, fish, milk, beans, lentils, nuts, various seeds, raw foods and green vegetables, as well as dark fruits such as blueberry, blackberry, broccoli, carrot pumpkin, kale, red cabbage and sweet potato.


Vitamin C is very important, and you can find it mostly in fresh fruit such as oranges, strawberry, kiwi, but also in vegetables: pepper, kale, and green leafy vegetables. Then, there is also a complex of B-vitamins, especially B12 and B6, which are most common in the integral bread, in soybeans, mackerel, pepper, green beans, and liver.


The diet should also include A-vitamin.

Do not neglect the turmeric and the green tea. In addition to the above, do not forget the powerful turmeric. This yellow-orange powder strengthens the brain cells. On the other hand, GINKGO BILOBA protects its functions.

Consuming green tea has proven to be a good prevention for good memory. Indian saffron contains large amounts of antioxidants so it is effective in protecting brain functions. Also, ale pepper improves the blood flow to the brain four times better than Ginkgo-based products. It stimulates circulation, cleanses the blood and prevents free radicals.

A daily intake of sufficient amounts of fluids is important, especially regular consumption of 1-3 cups of tea per day. It is significant in the older age because it protects the brain from poisons and maintains memory. It is also important to treat associated illnesses such as high blood pressure and diabetes. Of course, avoid large amounts of sugar, processed foods, and smoking cigarettes that damage the brain.



Coconut oil slows down the development of the disease, the Indian turmeric spice as an additive to soups and stews. Consume sufficient amounts of vitamin D, B-complex vitamins and drink black coffee.