Achilles tendon belongs to the most injured part of the body. This tendon plays such a role that it almost gets no rest during the day. For these reasons, Achilles tendon inflammation is much more frequent, as well as partial or complete ruptures. This tendon received the name after the ancient Greek hero Achilles. It is the strongest tendon in the human body and it is 5-6 cm long. The Achilles tendon (tendo Achillis) connects the calf muscle to the heel bone (os. calcaneus).
There are two groups of injuries to the Achilles tendon. The first is chronic inflammation, and the second is the partial or complete rupture of the Achilles tendon. The appearance of the Achilles tendon ruptures is associated with rapid physical effort and/or sports recreational activity. It also occurs in professional athletes, but in every case, prevention is important. Before any match, football, basketball, it is necessary to warm up well and stretch (In this way, the possibility of injury to the Achilles tendon would be minimized.
Achilles tendon rupture is one of the most common tendon injuries in the sport: footballers, tennis players, gymnasts, handball players, basketball players, and athletes (runners and jumpers).
The most common location for rupture is within the tendon substance just above the heel, as well as the places where the Achilles tendon attaches to the heel bone. The most common causes of Achilles tendon rupture: direct action, rapid and excessive tension, as well as degenerative changes.
Symptoms: instant and severe pain, morning pain and stiffness of the upper ankle, snapping or popping noise at the area of injury (like walking on dry snow). 2-5 cm. above the heel bone will appear a hollow area where the tendon is ruptured.
Procedure: Place cold wraps on the sore spot for 15 minutes. Repeat the procedure every 15 minutes with the same rest until an expert medical personnel arrives.
Treatment: By surgery or conservatively.
After surgery, the leg is placed in a plaster cast or some special orthopedic boot in for about 6 weeks. After extraction of the plaster cast, strength and stability training begins, but standing on the fingers of the injured leg needs to be avoided. Physical therapy lasts 6-8 weeks. Treatments start very early. Manual massage is implemented on a healthy leg and the injured above the heel bone and up to the crotch.
Hydrotherapy is performed after healing of the wound before and during kinesitherapy. Other Physical methods: Classical galvanization, diadynamic current therapy, and at signs of atrophy, electrostimulation, then ultrasound therapy, laser, and pulse magnetotherapy are used. Kinesitherapy starts with active exercises on all the joints of a healthy leg, initially without resistance, and later with strong resistance from the physiotherapist. At the same time, breathing exercises and general conditioning exercises, as well as balancing exercises, are also performed.
After the operation of the Achilles tendon, a 6-9-month break from sports activities is necessary.
Stretching for the Achilles tendon
Position: Stand with your face facing the wall, with separated soles, elbows stretched, and palms placed on the wall.
Movement: Bent the knee easily, keep the back straight, the elbows bend and with your body approach the wall.
Aim: To stretch the muscle of the ankle and the Achilles tendon.
Note: Make sure that the heel of your back leg is always on the ground or on the floor if you stretch in the room. Do not raise it! The toes should always be facing forward.